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Astronauts space

Buff space mice could stop astronauts from losing bone and muscle mass – Space.com

mice microgravity muscle loss bone loss

Mice without the gene for myostatin, a protein that limits muscle growth, retained more bone and muscle mass during spaceflight than normal mice that do carry the gene. The larger of the two mice pictured here has been genetically modified to lack myostatin and, as a result, has larger muscles.

(Image: © Se-Jin Lee)

Super-muscular mice may now reveal a way to keep astronauts from losing muscle and bone in the microgravity of space, a new study finds.

A major challenge astronauts face during prolonged space missions is the simultaneous loss of bone and muscle, which weaken and atrophy due to disuse outside the constant pull of Earth’s gravity. Previous research found that in microgravity, astronauts can lose up to 20% of their muscle mass in less than two weeks.

The husband-and-wife team of Se-Jin Lee and Emily Germain-Lee thought they might have found a way to fight bone and muscle loss when Lee and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins University helped discover myostatin, a protein that normally limits muscle growth, in the 1990s.

Related: The human body in space: 6 weird facts

“Back then, we showed that mice in which we deleted the myostatin gene had dramatic increases in muscle mass throughout the body, with individual muscles growing to about twice the normal size,” Lee, a geneticist now at the Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine in Farmington, Connecticut, told Space.com. “This immediately suggested the possibility that blocking myostatin might be an effective strategy to combat muscle loss due to a wide range of diseases. This also suggested the possibility that this might be effective for astronauts during extended space travel.”

For the past 20 years, the researchers have wanted to see what effects blocking myostatin would have in mice sent to space. “We finally got the opportunity to do so last year,” Lee said.

In December, the scientists launched 40 mice from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center to the International Space Station aboard SpaceX’s CRS-19 cargo resupply services mission. “We were so impressed by the dedication, focus and enthusiasm that everyone brought to this project, and it was a privilege to have the opportunity to work with all of them,” Lee said.

Related: How spacefaring rodents adapt to life in space (video)

While 24 of the 40 mice were normal, eight of them were missing the myostatin gene and eight others were treated with a molecule that suppressed both myostatin and a protein known as activin A, which has similar effects on muscle as myostatin.

Normal mice — those that carried the myostatin gene and received no protein-inhibiting treatments — lost significant muscle and bone mass during the 33 days spent in microgravity. In contrast, mice that were missing the myostatin gene and had a muscle mass about twice that of a regular mouse, largely retained their muscles during spaceflight. 

mice microgravity muscle loss bone loss

This graphic shows how effective the treatments were at mitigating the bone loss that mice experience in microgravity, with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) images of femurs and vertebrae of mice that received or did not receive the treatment, both on Earth and at the International Space Station.  (Image credit: Se-Jin Lee)

In addition, the scientists found the mice that received the molecule suppressing myostatin and activin A saw dramatic increases in both muscle and bone mass. Moreover, mice treated with this molecule after returning to Earth experienced more recovery of muscle and bone mass when compared with untreated mice.

These findings suggest targeting myostatin and activin A “could be an effective therapeutic strategy to mitigate muscle and bone loss that occur in astronauts during extended spaceflight, as well as in people on Earth who suffer from disuse atrophy as a result of being bedridden, wheelchair-bound or elderly,” Germain-Lee, a pediatric endocrinologist at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine in Farmington, told Space.com. 

Related: Space travel causes joint problems in mice. But, what about humans?

Although the researchers find their results exciting, “It is important to remember that these studies were done using mice,” Lee said. “Although mice have very similar physiology to humans, sometimes what we learn from mice does not translate exactly to humans. There is still a lot of work that would need to be done to develop treatments for humans, but we believe that this type of strategy holds great promise.”

Lee, Germain-Lee and their colleagues detailed their findings online Sept. 7 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Follow Charles Q. Choi on Twitter @cqchoi. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom and on Facebook.

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Astronauts working

Astronauts working hard to find air leak aboard the ISS – SlashGear

NASA astronauts aboard the ISS are currently working hard to find and repair a small, persistent air leak aboard the space station. While an air leak in a space station orbiting the Earth seems like a significant risk, NASA has stated that the leak is within segment specifications and presents no immediate danger to the crew or the space station. Some air leakage from the station is normal, and NASA says that this particular leak has been on its radar for a while.

The first indications of the leak were seen in September 2019. An increase in the leak rate has triggered increased efforts to find the source so it can be repaired. The crew currently aboard the ISS includes NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy and Russian cosmonauts Ivan Vagner and Anatoly Ivanishin. The trio began searching for the leak on Friday and will spend through Monday bunking in the Russian Zvezda service module.

NASA says that by staying in the segment of the station with the leak, the chances of the astronauts finding the source is improved. Staying in the segment also allows the crew to close station hatches so the air pressure can be monitored in each section.

NASA is clear that the test presents no safety challenges for the crew. However, shutting down the hatches can help mission controllers figure out where the leak is coming from. Initial results from the testing are expected next week.

Once the source of the leak is tracked down, the crew will determine if it can be repaired. It’s unclear exactly what repair methods will be employed, but NASA certainly has a plan.

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alive Astronauts

‘It came alive:’ NASA astronauts describe experiencing splashdown in SpaceX Dragon – WKMG News 6 & ClickOrlando

Parachute deploy felt like ‘getting hit in the back of the chair with a baseball bat’

NASA astronauts Doug Hurley and Bob Behnken described in detail what it felt like and sounded like when SpaceX’s spacecraft came roaring back down to Earth for a successful splash down in the Gulf of Mexico over the weekend.

The astronauts said they were surprised by how similar the experience was to what SpaceX had prepared them for.

The astronauts answered questions from NASA’s Johnson Space Center on Tuesday for the first time since they landed back on their home planet.

Hurley and Behnken launched on the SpaceX Dragon capsule, nicknamed Endeavour, from Kennedy Space Center on May 30, arriving on the International Space Station the next day. The launch marked the first human spaceflight from Florida’s coast in nearly nine years.

After more than two months in space, the duo journeyed back to Earth in Dragon Endeavour in about 19 hours, sleeping overnight in the spacecraft before the splashdown.

[MORE COVERAGE: What needs to happen before SpaceX’s Dragon Endeavour flies astronauts again? | Private boaters swarmed SpaceX spacecraft landing site]

The landing Sunday went smoothly by all accounts as the spacecraft slowly descended into the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Pensacola all while Tropical Storm Isaias was barreling up Florida’s Atlantic coast. The event marked the first spacecraft splashdown in 45 years.

Behnken and Hurley both said the videos SpaceX showed them of what they would see and hear and when they would experience it were very accurate. The videos were recorded when the SpaceX Crew Dragon made its first trip to the ISS but without astronauts on board last year.

Behnken walked through every step describing the descent to Earth.

Support teams and curious recreational boaters arrive at the SpaceX Crew Dragon Endeavour spacecraft shortly after it landed with NASA astronauts Robert Behnken and Douglas Hurley onboard in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Pensacola, Florida, Sunday, Aug. 2, 2src2src. The Demo-2 test flight for NASA's Commercial Crew Program was the first to deliver astronauts to the International Space Station and return them safely to Earth onboard a commercially built and operated spacecraft. Behnken and Hurley returned after spending 64 days in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)
Support teams and curious recreational boaters arrive at the SpaceX Crew Dragon Endeavour spacecraft shortly after it landed with NASA astronauts Robert Behnken and Douglas Hurley onboard in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Pensacola, Florida, Sunday, Aug. 2, 2020. The Demo-2 test flight for NASA’s Commercial Crew Program was the first to deliver astronauts to the International Space Station and return them safely to Earth onboard a commercially built and operated spacecraft. Behnken and Hurley returned after spending 64 days in space. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls) ((NASA/Bill Ingalls)rrFor copyright and restrictions refer to -�http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/guidelines/index.html)

The first part of the de-orbit events happened when the spacecraft separated from the trunk while Dragon was still in low-Earth orbit.

“All the separation events from the trunk separation through the parachute firings were very much like getting hit in the back of the chair with a baseball bat, you know, just a crack,” Behnken said.

Next, as the Dragon began its deorbit burn the capsule began coming back down to Earth.

“As we kind of descended through the atmosphere, I personally was surprised at just how quickly all the events all transpired. It seemed like just a couple minutes later after the burn was complete, we could look out the windows and see the clouds rushing by at a much accelerated rate,” Behnken said.

Behnken said the two continued to talk to each other even while experiencing 4.2 G-forces, even cracking a few jokes.

While the spacecraft heat shield protects the capsule and the astronauts, Behnken described a “warming of the capsule on the inside,” as it descended through Earth’s atmosphere.

Behnken said next, before the parachutes deployed, they could feel Crew Dragon maneuver itself for re-entry using its thrusters.

“It came alive. It started to fire thrusters and keep us pointed in the appropriate direction, the atmosphere starts to make noise, you can hear that rumble outside the vehicle,” Behnken said. “It doesn’t sound like a machine. It sounds like an animal coming through the atmosphere.”

The astronauts could feel the parachutes, first the drogue chutes, then the main parachutes deploy as the spacecraft slowed from 350 mph to near 15 mph for splashdown.

Behnken said “it was a pretty significant jolt” when the parachutes deployed.

Hurley and Behnken both complimented the teams at SpaceX that built the spacecraft.

“The vehicle was rock solid right up until the nominal drogue (parachute) deploy,” Hurley said, later adding, “My compliments to SpaceX and the Commercial Crew Program, the vehicle performed exactly how it was supposed to.”

The launch, docking and splashdown marked the final test flight for SpaceX’s astronaut capsule before NASA can issue a certification for regular flights for its astronauts. The spacecraft will be thoroughly inspected and refurbished before it flies another astronaut crew as early as next year.

After landing in the Gulf, the astronauts had to wait about an hour before the hatch was opened and they were helped out. That wait was partially due to some curious boaters who approached despite the Coast Guard attempting to warn them off and then because of a potential fume hazard.

While they waited, the astronauts used the satellite phone to make a few calls. The called any numbers they could remember, according to Hurley, including the flight director in Houston.

NASA astronauts Douglas Hurley, holds the hand of his wife Karen Nyberg as their son Jack, 1src looks on, after Hurley and astronaut Robert Behnken walked out of the Neil A. Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building on their way to Pad 39-A, at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla., Saturday, May 3src, 2src2src. The two astronauts will fly on a SpaceX test flight to the International Space Station. For the first time in nearly a decade, astronauts will blast into orbit aboard an American rocket from American soil, a first for a private company. (AP Photo/John Raoux)
NASA astronauts Douglas Hurley, holds the hand of his wife Karen Nyberg as their son Jack, 10 looks on, after Hurley and astronaut Robert Behnken walked out of the Neil A. Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building on their way to Pad 39-A, at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla., Saturday, May 30, 2020. The two astronauts will fly on a SpaceX test flight to the International Space Station. For the first time in nearly a decade, astronauts will blast into orbit aboard an American rocket from American soil, a first for a private company. (AP Photo/John Raoux) (Copyright 2020 The Associated Press. All rights reserved.)

“‘Hi, this is Bob and Doug, we’re in the ocean,‘” Hurley said they told the flight director.

The astronauts then called their wives, who were together in Houston, to tell them they had a safe landing.

“Having gone through this as a family member, you’re kind of helpless until you hear the voice of your loved one on the other end and this was a great chance to reassure them that we were in the water. We were OK. We were feeling good,” Hurley said.

After getting out of the spacecraft, the astronauts were taken by helicopter back to land. Then by jet back to Houston where they enjoyed some pizza, their first meal on Earth in more than 60 days.

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Astronauts SpaceX

NASA astronauts set to ride a SpaceX Crew Dragon back to Earth for the 1st time this weekend – Space.com

After a busy two months in space, the first two NASA astronauts to visit the International Space Station on a commercial vehicle are ready to come back to Earth — if the weather cooperates.

Doug Hurley and Bob Behnken arrived at the International Space Station on May 31, the day after becoming the first astronauts to launch from Florida tucked inside a SpaceX Crew Dragon capsule. But this weekend, they have to tackle one of the most challenging aspects of the mission: leaving the space station, spending hours inside that same capsule, parachuting through Earth’s atmosphere and splashing down off the coast of Florida.

“It’s just time to go give it a try and see how it goes,” Hurley said during a news conference on Friday (July 31) held with his colleagues in orbit during his last full day on the space station.

Hurley and Behnken are currently scheduled to climb into the Crew Dragon capsule Saturday (Aug. 1) and splash down on Sunday (Aug. 2). Their initial splashdown target site is in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Florida’s Panama City, NASA officials have said.

Related: SpaceX’s historic Demo-2 Crew Dragon test flight: Full coverage

NASA astronauts Bob Behnken, Chris Cassidy and Doug Hurley answer questions on July 31, 2src2src, from the International Space Station in advance of Behnken and Hurley's departure for Earth the next day.

NASA astronauts Bob Behnken, Chris Cassidy and Doug Hurley answer questions on July 31, 2020, from the International Space Station in advance of Behnken and Hurley’s departure for Earth the next day. (Image credit: NASA TV)

The splashdown procedure marks the final hurdle of the duo’s mission, dubbed Demo-2, and marks the final test for SpaceX’s commercial crew system. After a safe return, the company should be clear to launch regular missions to the orbiting laboratory.

Every step of the Demo-2 mission has been an evaluation of the new spacecraft, and both Behnken and Hurley and NASA leadership have emphasized throughout the mission that it has been a test flight. The astronauts’ job has been to vet every aspect of the vehicle and ensure it is ready for regular use by crewmembers, but it also means that they have been guinea pigs of a sort throughout the mission, and that holds for their return as well, although the astronauts said they’re unfazed.

“As we get closer, I think we really focus more and more on our preparations to be ready for the splashdown activities,” Behnken said. “I still don’t feel nervous about it.”

For decades, U.S. astronauts returning from space have touched down on land, either in a runway landing like those conducted by NASA’s space shuttles or in a parachute landing as the Russian Soyuz capsules do. The last American crew to return to the ocean did so 45 years ago, at the end of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission in which astronauts met up with Soviet cosmonauts in orbit.

“The water landing portion of it is pretty challenging from a physiological standpoint, just after coming back from being in microgravity for on the order of one to two months,” Hurley said. “The ground teams are fully aware of the challenges of a water landing and what it does to the human body and we’ll just take it from there.”

In photos: SpaceX’s historic Demo-2 test flight with astronauts 

Although NASA is eager to see the Demo-2 capsule undock, the scheduling of the return trip isn’t set in stone. NASA and SpaceX will base the timing of the procedure on a host of weather and ocean criteria at whichever of the seven splashdown sites the team ends up targeting.

Right now, those conditions are looking tricky. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Hurricane Center is monitoring a system called Hurricane Isaias as it barrels through the Caribbean Sea, heading toward Florida. 

This NASA graphic shows seven potential splashdown sites for SpaceX's Crew Dragon Endeavour carrying NASA astronauts Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley on the Demo-2 test flight.

This NASA graphic shows seven potential splashdown sites for SpaceX’s Crew Dragon Endeavour carrying NASA astronauts Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley on the Demo-2 test flight. (Image credit: NASA/SpaceX)

As of this morning, forecasts predict the storm will head up the eastern coast of Florida throughout the day on Sunday, potentially leaving safe conditions on the Gulf coast, where four of the seven potential sites are located.

The astronauts said they’re leaving weather concerns to staff on the ground and are ready to do what mission control advises. “We don’t control the weather and we know we can stay up here longer,” Behnken said. “There’s more chow and I know the space station program’s got more work that we can do for those [researchers] and other folks that have sent science up here to the space station.”

A safe return for Demo-2 is the last piece of the puzzle for NASA approval of SpaceX’s next crewed launch, the company’s first full-length mission to the space station. Dubbed Crew-1, that mission is currently targeting launch in late September.

Crew-1 will carry three NASA astronauts — Michael Hopkins, Victor Glover and Shannon Walker — and Japan’s Soichi Noguchi to the space station for a stay more than six months long that will put the orbiting laboratory’s staff count at seven.

NASA also recently announced staffing for the next mission, Crew-2, which will see U.S. astronauts Megan McArthur (who is married to Behnken) and Shane Kimbrough, Japanese astronaut Akihiko Hoshide and European astronaut Thomas Pesquet blast off Earth in 2021. That mission will use the same Endeavour Crew Dragon capsule as the Demo-2 crew.

Email Meghan Bartels at mbartels@space.com or follow her on Twitter @meghanbartels. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom and on Facebook.

Join our Space Forums to keep talking space on the latest missions, night sky and more! And if you have a news tip, correction or comment, let us know at: community@space.com.

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Astronauts space

NASA Astronauts in Space to Discuss Upcoming SpaceX Crew Dragon Return – NASA

NASA Astronauts in Space to Discuss Upcoming SpaceX Crew Dragon Return – NASA
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Astronauts conduct

NASA astronauts conduct second spacewalk for space station power upgrades – CNN

(CNN)Early Wednesday, NASA astronauts Chris Cassidy and Robert Behnken conducted a spacewalk outside of the International Space Station to replace lithium ion batteries for one of the station’s power channels.

Wednesday’s spacewalk began at 7:13 a.m. ET and concluded at 1:14 p.m. ET. It lasted for six hours and one minute.
Both astronauts are veteran spacewalkers. This was the eighth venture outside for both Cassidy and Behnken, according to NASA.
Behnken, along with NASA astronaut Doug Hurley, launched from the United States and joined Cassidy on the space station on May 31. They were aboard SpaceX’s Crew Dragon during the Demo-2 mission.
These spacewalks are the culmination of a series of power upgrades that began in January 2017 to replace nickel-hydrogen batteries with new lithium ion batteries.
This spacewalk, similar to one that took place last Friday, was focused on replacing batteries for one of the power channels on the far starboard truss of the station. Because the astronauts accomplished some of the tasks for this spacewalk last week, they also worked on tasks scheduled for later spacewalks, routed power and ethernet cables and laid the groundwork for future power system upgrades.
These cables will provide better views on future spacewalks, according to NASA.
These power system upgrades, however, are nothing like replacing batteries in your remote. The new batteries each have a mass of 428 pounds.
For this spacewalk, Cassidy was crew member I and wore a spacesuit showing red stripes, while Behnken served as crew member II in a suit with no stripes. Hurley and Russian cosmonaut Ivan Vagner helped Cassidy and Behnken into their spacesuits. Hurley operated the station’s robotic arm to support the astronauts outside the station.
The battery replacements, which will have a 20-year lifetime, will put the station in a much better configuration for the long term, said Kenneth Todd, deputy International Space Station program manager, during a NASA press conference last week.
Behnken recently discussed the spacewalk, and why it’s important to replace the batteries, during a call to the space station from CNN Innovation and Space Reporter Rachel Crane.
“When the space station is in the sun, it’s collecting energy and it needs to store for when it’s in the dark,” he said. “And so those batteries, as they’re cycled time and time again, they wear down and need to be replaced. And so periodically that maintenance is required.”
Behnken said he was looking forward to another spacewalk experience.
“I really look forward to the views of the Earth when we get a free moment,” he said. “I think each astronaut, when they go out on their first spacewalk, they’re really focused on trying to get all the activities accomplished and do a good job so that they can probably get a chance to do another one if the opportunity presents itself.
“But after you’ve done a couple and know what to expect as you go through it, it is important to, you know, take some mental photographs, some mental images, or remember what it was like to be outside.”

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Astronauts Falcon

Astronauts: Falcon 9 rocket was ‘totally different’ ride than the space shuttle – Fox News

The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket was a “pure flying machine” compared to the space shuttle, according to the astronauts who rode it into space.

Doug Hurley and Bob Behnken piloted the first manned flight of the Falcon 9 on May 30. Each astronaut had previously been on on two space shuttle missions, and they spoke of their surprise at how comparatively smooth the SpaceX launch was.

SpaceX’s Crew Dragon spacecraft during launch May 3src. (NASA/SpaceX)

SpaceX’s Crew Dragon spacecraft during launch May 30. (NASA/SpaceX)

“From the time the engines lit, the first two-and-a-half minutes to staging was about like we expected, except you can never simulate the Gs, so as the Gs built you could certainly feel those,” Hurley told Spaceflight Now. “What I thought was really neat was how sensitive we were to the throttling of the Merlin engines. That was really neat. You could definitely sense that as we broke Mach 1.”

He added: “We didn’t even need to look at the speed. You could tell just by how the rocket felt, so it’s a very pure flying machine.”

SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket climbs into orbit May 3src from the Kennedy Space Center. Credit: SpaceX

SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket climbs into orbit May 30 from the Kennedy Space Center. Credit: SpaceX

“Remember, [the] shuttle had solid rocket boosters to start with,” Hurley said. “Those burned very rough for the first two-and-a-half minutes. The first stage with Falcon 9 were the nine Merlin engines. It was a much smoother ride, obviously, because it was a liquid engine ascent.”

This photo provided by NASA shows Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley, far right, joining the crew at the International Space Station, after the SpaceX Dragon capsule pulled up to the station and docked Sunday, May 31, 2src2src. The Dragon capsule arrived Sunday morning, hours after a historic liftoff from Florida. It's the first time that a privately built and owned spacecraft has delivered a crew to the orbiting lab. (NASA via AP)

This photo provided by NASA shows Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley, far right, joining the crew at the International Space Station, after the SpaceX Dragon capsule pulled up to the station and docked Sunday, May 31, 2020. The Dragon capsule arrived Sunday morning, hours after a historic liftoff from Florida. It’s the first time that a privately built and owned spacecraft has delivered a crew to the orbiting lab. (NASA via AP)

Liquid engine ascent is a reference to the mix of super-chilled kerosene and cryogenic liquid oxygen propellants consumed by the Merlin engines.

After the smooth launch, the astronauts said the second stage felt a bit rougher.

“The biggest difference is just the dynamics that are involved, the vibration, the experiences that we felt actually riding a real rocket,” Behnken said.

“It will be interesting to walk with the SpaceX folks to find out why it was a little bit rougher ride on the second stage than it was for shuttle on those three main engines,” Hurley added.

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The Crew Dragon spacecraft was developed to largely function autonomously, handling all prep and docking with the International Space Station following the 19-hour flight.

NASA is also working with Boeing on its manned Starliner capsule, which is expected to launch early next year.

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Astronauts Video

VIDEO: NASA astronauts lift off on SpaceXs first crewed launch – Austin American-Statesman


Florida Today

Saturday

May 30, 2020 at 12:15 PM

NASA astronauts will lift off on SpaceX’s first crewed launch at 3:22 p.m. ET. Anchored pre-launch coverage begins at 1:30 p.m. ET.

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Astronauts goodbye

NASA astronauts say goodbye, Astro Van, hello, Tesla Model X – CNET

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The two astronauts going up to the ISS aboard the SpaceX Dragon are getting a lift to the launchpad in this bad boy.


NASA

Historically speaking, astronauts have had some pretty cool ways of getting from the building where they don their spacesuits to the launch pad. The Mercury crews rode in a small trailer that was pulled by a tractor, for instance.

Now, though, as space exploration becomes more privatized, things will be changing, and we already know what some of those changes are. See, a pair of astronauts — Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley — will be leaving Earth aboard a SpaceX Dragon on a journey to the International Space Station, but first, they’re getting a ride in a Tesla, according to a Tweet from NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine.

Does NASA have a new competitor?

NASA’s classic “meatball” logo.


NASA

Figures, right? I mean, billionaire incarceration volunteer and noted quarantine-hater Elon Musk owns both companies, so why waste the opportunity for PR? Specifically, Mssrs. Behnken and Hurley will be hitching a ride in a white Tesla Model X. The vehicle itself should be pretty standard by all accounts, but at least two things make it unique: its NASA logos.

Specifically, both of NASA’s most historic and well-known logos appear on the vehicle at once — something that NASA has historically forbidden. The older of the two should be familiar to anyone who has seen the excellent film Apollo 13. It’s called “the meatball” by space historians and served from 1959 to 1975, then again from 1992 to the present day. The second one is the red and white logotype known as “the worm” and was used from 1975 to 1992. It should be familiar to devotees of the 1986 film SpaceCamp

In the past, astronauts have also been shuttled (pun so intended) in modified motorhomes known as Astro Vans (not to be confused with the “Rad-eraChevy minivans of same name). The first was a gutted Clark Cortez motor home and was used during the Apollo missions starting in 1968 and continued through 1982 when it was replaced by a modified Airstream Excella, which was big enough to pack in the larger Space Shuttle crews.

Officers Behnken and Hurley are set to launch aboard the SpaceX Dragon on May 27.

Neither Tesla nor NASA immediately responded to requests for comment.

http://www.cnet.com/


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Astronauts experiment with Nickelodeon’s slime in space – CNN




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