Categories
dinosaur M-year-old

125M-year-old dinosaur trapped by a volcanic eruption found in China – Fox News

Researchers have discovered 125-million-year-old dinosaur fossils that are perfectly preserved and suggest the creatures were trapped by a volcanic eruption.

The study, published in the scientific journal PeerJ, notes the species were discovered in the western Liaoning Province in China and have been named Changmiania liaoningensis, which means “eternal sleeper from Liaoning” in Chinese.

“These animals were quickly covered by fine sediment while they were still alive or just after their death,” said the study’s co-author and paleontologist Pascal Godefroit, in a statement.

One of the two perfectly preserved skeletons of Changmiania liaoningensis and an artist's impression. (Drawing: Carine Ciselet)

One of the two perfectly preserved skeletons of Changmiania liaoningensis and an artist’s impression. (Drawing: Carine Ciselet)

LARGEST DINOSAUR EVER HAD ‘RHINO-LIKE HORN’ AT BIRTH, RESEARCH REVEALS

C. liaoningensis was small compared to its larger herbivore brethren, such as the titanosaur. It was approximately 4-feet long and had “very powerful hind legs” to go with a long tail, which suggests the ancient ornithopod was a strong and fast runner and walked upright, similar to iguanodons.

“However, certain characteristics of the skeleton suggest that Changmiania could dig burrows, much like rabbits do today,” Godefroit added. “Its neck and forearms are very short but robust, its shoulder blades are characteristic of burrowing vertebrates and the top of its snout is shaped like a shovel. So we believe that both Changmiania specimens were trapped by the volcanic eruption when they were resting at the bottom of their burrows 125 million years ago.”

As for their perfect preservation, the researchers suggest the two dinosaurs were resting when they died.

The two beautifully preserved skeletons (A/B and C) of Changmiania liaoningensis. Red arrows indicate gastrolith clusters. (Photo: RBINS)

The two beautifully preserved skeletons (A/B and C) of Changmiania liaoningensis. Red arrows indicate gastrolith clusters. (Photo: RBINS)

“It is tentatively hypothesized that both Changmiania liaoningensis specimens were suddenly entrapped in a collapsed underground burrow while they were resting, which would explain their perfect lifelike postures and the complete absence of weathering and scavenging traces,” they wrote in the study’s abstract.

The area where the fossils were found, the Lujiatun Beds, are the oldest layers of the famous Yixian Formation. For more than a generation, researchers have discovered “several hundred” fossils of feathered dinosaurs in the region.

‘JURASSIC PARK’ WAS WRONG: RAPTORS DIDN’T HUNT IN PACKS

Researchers continue to learn more about the migration patterns and habits of dinosaurs. In March, a study was published that looked at the fossilized teeth of a hadrosaur and concluded that its journeys were short, roughly 50 miles.

In April 2019, a study was published that said duck-billed dinosaurs roamed the Arctic 69 million years ago.

Dinosaurs were wiped out 65 million years ago by an asteroid that hit Earth in what is now the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico.

GET THE FOX NEWS APP

Read More

Categories
diagnosed dinosaur

Dinosaur Diagnosed With Malignant Cancer for the First Time – Cancerous Bone From 77 Million Years Ago – SciTechDaily

Horned Dinosaur Centrosaurus Apertus Shin Bone With Malignant Bone Cancer

The main tumor mass is at the top of the bone, and can be seen on the 3D reconstruction in yellow; red gray is the normal bone and red denotes the medullary cavity. Credit: Centrosaurus diagram by Danielle Dufault. Courtesy of Royal Ontario Museum. © Royal Ontario Museum/McMaster University

Royal Ontario Museum and McMaster University researchers diagnose osteosarcoma in a Centrosaurus apertus.

A collaboration led by the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) and McMaster University has led to the discovery and diagnosis of an aggressive malignant bone cancer — an osteosarcoma — for the first time ever in a dinosaur. No malignant cancers (tumors that can spread throughout the body and have severe health implications) have ever been documented in dinosaurs previously. The paper was published on August 3rd in the prestigious medical journal The Lancet Oncology.

The cancerous bone in question is the fibula (lower leg bone) from Centrosaurus apertus, a horned dinosaur that lived 76 to 77 million years ago. Originally discovered in Dinosaur Provincial Park in Alberta in 1989, the badly malformed end of the fossil was originally thought to represent a healing fracture. Noting the unusual properties of the bone on a trip to the Royal Tyrrell Museum in 2017, Dr. David Evans, James and Louise Temerty Endowed Chair of Vertebrate Palaeontology from the ROM, and Drs. Mark Crowther, Professor of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, and Snezana Popovic, an histopathologist, both at McMaster University, decided to investigate it further using modern medical techniques. They assembled a team of multidisciplinary specialists and medical professionals from fields including pathology, radiology, orthopedic surgery, and palaeopathology. The team re-evaluated the bone and approached the diagnosis similarly to how it would be approached for the diagnosis of an unknown tumor in a human patient.

“Diagnosis of aggressive cancer like this in dinosaurs has been elusive and requires medical expertise and multiple levels of analysis to properly identify,” says Crowther, who is also a Royal Patrons Circle donor and volunteer at the ROM. “Here, we show the unmistakable signature of advanced bone cancer in 76-million-year-old horned dinosaur — the first of its kind. It’s very exciting.”

After carefully examining, documenting, and casting the bone, the team performed high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans. They then thin-sectioned the fossil bone and examined it under a microscope to assess it at the bone-cellular level. Powerful three-dimensional CT reconstruction tools were used to visualize the progression of the cancer through the bone. Using this rigorous process, the investigators reached a diagnosis of osteosarcoma.

To confirm this diagnosis, they then compared the fossil to a normal fibula from a dinosaur of the same species, as well as to a human fibula with a confirmed case of osteosarcoma. The fossil specimen is from an adult dinosaur with an advanced stage of cancer that may have invaded other body systems. Yet it was found in a massive bonebed, suggesting it died as part of a large herd of Centrosaurus struck down by a flood.

Cancerous and Non-cancerous Dinosaur Bone Comparison

Comparison between thin sections of the cancerous shin bone (left) and normal shin bone of the horned dinosaur Centrosaurus apertus. The fossils were thin sectioned to compare the bone microstructure and properly diagnose the osteosarcoma. Credit: Courtesy of Royal Ontario Museum. © Royal Ontario Museum/McMaster University

“The shin bone shows aggressive cancer at an advanced stage. The cancer would have had crippling effects on the individual and made it very vulnerable to the formidable tyrannosaur predators of the time,” says Evans, an expert on these horned dinosaurs. “The fact that this plant-eating dinosaur lived in a large, protective herd may have allowed it to survive longer than it normally would have with such a devastating disease.”

Osteosarcoma is a bone cancer that usually occurs in the second or third decade of life. It is an overgrowth of disorganized bone that spreads rapidly both through the bone in which it originates and to other organs, including most commonly, the lung. It is the same type of cancer that afflicted Canadian athlete Terry Fox and led to the partial amputation of his right leg prior to Fox’s heroic Marathon of Hope in 1980.

“It is both fascinating and inspiring to see a similar multidisciplinary effort that we use in diagnosing and treating osteosarcoma in our patients leading to the first diagnosis of osteosarcoma in a dinosaur,” says Seper Ekhtiari, an Orthopaedic Surgery Resident at McMaster University. “This discovery reminds us of the common biological links throughout the animal kingdom and reinforces the theory that osteosarcoma tends to affect bones when and where they are growing most rapidly.”

This study aims to establish a new standard for the diagnosis of unclear diseases in dinosaur fossils and opens the door to more precise and more certain diagnoses. Establishing links between human disease and the diseases of the past will help scientists to gain a better understanding of the evolution and genetics of various diseases. Evidence of many other diseases that we share with dinosaurs and other extinct animals may yet be sitting in museum collections in need of re-examination using modern analytical techniques.

###

Reference: “First case of osteosarcoma in a dinosaur: a multimodal diagnosis” by Seper Ekhtiari, Kentaro Chiba, Snezana Popovic, Rhianne Crowther, Gregory Wohl, Andy Kin On Wong, Darren H Tanke, Danielle M Dufault, Olivia D Geen, Naveen Parasu, Mark A Crowther and David C Evans, August 2020, The Lancet Oncology.


DOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30171-6

Funding for David Evans was provided by an NSERC Discovery Grant, and research computers for 3D visualization were generously supported by The Dorothy Strelsin Foundation.



Read More

Categories
diagnosed dinosaur

Dinosaur diagnosed with bone cancer that afflicts humans today – CNN

(CNN)Like humans, dinosaurs got sick. T. rex may have suffered from gout, duck-billed dinosaurs had bone tumors and many species would have scratched at lice.

Now, scientists say they have, for the first time, found that dinosaurs suffered from osteosarcoma — an aggressive malignant cancer that afflicts humans today.
When a lower leg bone or fibula from a horned dinosaur called Centrosaurus apertus that lived 76 to 77 million years ago was unearthed in Dinosaur Provincial Park in Alberta, Canada, in 1989, the malformed end of the fossilized bone was originally thought to be a healing fracture.
But a more detailed analysis, using modern medical techniques that approached the fossil in the same way as a diagnosis in a human patient, revealed that it was osteosarcoma, a bone cancer that in humans today usually occurs in the second or third decade of life.
It’s an overgrowth of disorganized bone that spreads rapidly both through the bone and to other organs, including most commonly, the lung.
“Diagnosis of aggressive cancer like this in dinosaurs has been elusive and requires medical expertise and multiple levels of analysis to properly identify,” said Dr. Mark Crowther, a professor of pathology and molecular medicine at McMaster University in a press statement.
“Here, we show the unmistakable signature of advanced bone cancer in (a) 76-million-year-old horned dinosaur — the first of its kind. It’s very exciting,” said Crowther, author of the paper, which published Monday in the journal Lancet Oncology.
The team analyzing the fossilized bone included professionals from diverse fields including pathology, radiology, orthopedic surgery and paleopathology — the study of disease and infection in the fossil record.
The bone was examined, cast and CT scanned before a thin slice of the bone was studied under the microscope. Then, powerful three-dimensional reconstruction tools were used to visualize the progression of the cancer through the bone. The investigators ultimately reached a diagnosis of osteosarcoma.
To confirm their diagnosis, the team compared the fossil to a normal fibula from a dinosaur of the same species, as well as to a fibula belonging to a 19-year-old man with a confirmed case of osteosarcoma.
Osteosarcoma is the cancer that afflicted Canadian athlete Terry Fox, a national hero who in 1980 set out to cross Canada, running about the equivalent of a marathon each day to raise money for cancer research. But Fox, who had a prosthetic right leg, had to quit after 143 days as his cancer spread. He died less than a year later.

Common biological links

“It is both fascinating and inspiring to see a similar multidisciplinary effort that we use in diagnosing and treating osteosarcoma in our patients leading to the first diagnosis of osteosarcoma in a dinosaur,” said Seper Ekhtiari, an orthopedic surgery resident at McMaster University and study co-author.
The fossil specimen is from an adult dinosaur with an advanced stage of cancer that may have invaded other body systems; however, it’s not clear if the dinosaur was killed by the cancer.
It was found in a massive bone bed, suggesting it died as part of a large herd of Centrosaurus that was struck down by a flood.
“The shin bone shows aggressive cancer at an advanced stage. The cancer would have had crippling effects on the individual and made it very vulnerable to the formidable tyrannosaur predators of the time,” said study-co author David Evans, the James and Louise Temerty endowed chair of vertebrate palaeontology at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto in the news release.
“The fact that this plant-eating dinosaur lived in a large, protective herd may have allowed it to survive longer than it normally would have with such a devastating disease.”
This study said it aimed to establish a new standard for the diagnosis of diseases in dinosaur fossils and opened the door to more precise diagnoses.
Studying disease in fossils is a complicated task given there are no living references. The diseases of the past, however, will help scientists to gain a better understanding of the evolution and genetics of disease, experts say.
“Evidence suggests that malignancies, including bone cancers, are rooted quite deeply in the evolutionary history of organisms,” the paper said.
“This discovery reminds us of the common biological links throughout the animal kingdom and reinforces the theory that osteosarcoma tends to affect bones when and where they are growing most rapidly,” said Ekhtiari.

Read More

Categories
dinosaur joined

Toy dinosaur that joined astronauts on SpaceX flight extinct at most stores – CNET

dinosaur

The dinosaur began to float once the space capsule reached zero gravity.


Video screenshot by Gael Fashingbauer Cooper/CNET

A sparkly, glittery toy dinosaur flew along with NASA astronauts Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley on the SpaceX Crew Dragon’s trip to the International Space Station this weekend. But if you were hoping to add the dino to your home toy box, you may be out of luck. The cute little guy is all but extinct at online stores.

The dinosaur was seen on the broadcast of Saturday’s launch, floating past Behnken and Hurley. The plush toy was dubbed a zero-gravity indicator, because once it begins to float, the astronauts, who are of course buckled down, know that they’re experiencing weightlessness. A plush toy of Earth was used in a similar way for an uncrewed SpaceX flight in 2019.

“We did end up with one stowaway on board our vehicle when we launched today. It was not just Doug and I who accomplished the launch here,” Behnken said after blastoff, according to Space.com. “We do have an Apatosaurus aboard.” 

And the Apatosaurus has a name: Tremor. It belongs to one of the astronauts’ sons. Behnken has a 6-year-old son, Theo, and Hurley has a 10-year-old son, Jack.

“We collected up all the dinosaurs between our two houses and ‘Tremor,’ the Apatosaurus, got the vote from the boys to make the trip into space today with us,” Behnken said.

According to a tweet from science writer and geologist Mika McKinnon, the dinosaur is a six-inch long plushy from toymaker Ty, creator of Beanie Babies, with reversible blue/pink sequins.

Note:

I’m pretty sure that’s the TY Flippables Tremor Dinosaur, 6” tall with blue/pink reversible sequins.

If so, it’s a retired plushie that is no longer manufactured, so you can only acquire it on the resale market. pic.twitter.com/k51gJfHbP2

— Mika McKinnon (@mikamckinnon) May 27, 2020

The dinosaur was briefly sold in the SpaceX online store, Barron’s reports, but is no longer available there. SpaceX didn’t immediately respond to a request for comment about whether it would be restocked. And as of Wednesday, Tremor was listed as out of stock at various online stores, including Joann Fabrics, Michael’s and Amazon.

The dinosaur’s appearance was brief, but it was enough to earn it some Earthling fans. “My favorite part about this launch is that a glittery dinosaur has gone to space before almost all of us,” wrote one Twitter user. 

Read More

Categories
dinosaur swimming

A swimming dinosaur: The tail of Spinosaurus – nature video











Published on 29-Apr-2020

A new fossil of one of the most unusual dinosaurs, Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, suggests it was a swimming predator powered by a fin-like tail. The find comes after decades of debate on how much of its life Spinosaurus would have spent in the water, and how reliant they might have been on aquatic prey. Paleontologist Nizar Ibrahim has been working at the dig site in the Sahara and describes his amazement at the unique tail bones they found under the rock and sand.

Read the research here: https://www.nature.com/articles/s4158…

Sign up for the Nature Briefing: An essential round-up of science news, opinion and analysis, free in your inbox every weekday: https://go.nature.com/371OcVF

Read More