Fauci Warns

Fauci warns 4 states whose coronavirus numbers he says don’t look good – KTRK-TV

NEW YORK — Several states including Ohio, Tennessee, Kentucky and Indiana need to get the virus under control or risk watching their transmission rates get out of control, warned Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation’s top infectious disease expert.

In an interview livestreamed on ABC News’ Instagram on Wednesday, Fauci said he and Dr. Deborah Birx — the White House coordinator on the coronavirus task force — delivered the warning to the states’ governors in a private phone call on Tuesday.

He said Ohio, Tennessee, Kentucky and Indiana are among those states starting to show a subtle increase in “percent positives” — the percentage of total tests with positive results.

That’s “a surefire hint that you may be getting into the same sort of trouble with those states that the southern states got into trouble with,” he told Dr. Jennifer Ashton, ABC News’ chief medical correspondent.

Fauci said he and Birx “made the point” in the call with governors that these states need to take push residents to wear masks, avoid crowds, avoid the bars and wash hands.

“If we do that, hopefully we’ll prevent multiple other states from becoming just like the southern states,” he said.

Fauci’s warning comes after case counts were on the rise this summer, particularly in places like Texas, Florida and Arizona. The U.S. death count on Wednesday hit 150,000, according to a count by Johns Hopkins University.

In his interview, Fauci said Asian and European countries have done better to get transmission rates under control in part because they were so firm in shutting down this spring. Fauci has estimated that only about half of the U.S. stayed home, allowing the virus to continue infecting people at exponential rates and overwhelming many hospitals, particularly across the South.

The current U.S. rate of 50,000 to 60,000 a day is “still not optimal,” he said.

On schools, Fauci — whose daughter is a teacher — reiterated his position that everything possible should be done to reopen schools but that doing so might not be realistic in areas where the virus is raging.

“I don’t think there’s gonna be a one-size-fits-all here,” he said. “I think we got to be careful with the main thought being, we want to try as best as possible to get the children back to school.”

When asked about his own fitness regimen, Fauci, who turns 80 this December, said he still likes to run despite a work schedule that goes well into the night. He said he typically gets up at 5 a.m. every morning, grabs juice or eggs and will drink two “very strong” double espressos as he tackles his email.

He says he often works well into the night.

“Sleep is the one thing that’s really suffered in all this,” he said.

Copyright © 2020 ABC News Internet Ventures.

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updates Warns

Live updates: Birx warns Florida, Texas and California are ‘three New Yorks’ as coronavirus deaths soar – The Washington Post

With the virus spreading rapidly, President Trump abruptly canceled next month’s Republican National Convention events in Florida, a sign that his large, boisterous campaign rallies may be a thing of the past. The about-face is the latest reversal from Trump, who in the past week has begun enthusiastically promoting masks and acknowledging the gravity of the pandemic while conceding that schools may have to delay reopening.

Here are some significant developments:

  • With millions of people days away from losing unemployment benefits — and a federal eviction moratorium about to end — a new stimulus package has been delayed. The White House has backed down from Trump’s demand to include a payroll tax cut in the next coronavirus relief bill, but Republicans are struggling with a major overhaul of the unemployment system and other aspects of the legislation.
  • McDonald’s announced it would require masks in all of its fast-food restaurants beginning Aug. 1. That follows the lead of major retailers, such as Walmart and Target, grocery chains and Starbucks coffee shops. U.S. airlines also have unveiled stricter rules for face coverings, and at least two — American and Southwest — say they will no longer carry passengers who refuse to wear masks.
  • Even as President Trump urges U.S. schools to reopen, his youngest son would probably not be able to return to his own private school full-time in the fall. St. Andrew’s Episcopal School, the Maryland private school that Trump’s 14-year-old son Barron Trump attends, told families that they should prepare for an all-distance or hybrid learning model in the fall.
  • Anthony S. Fauci, the nation’s top infectious-disease expert, said in an interview that he’s been receiving “serious threats” against his life and his family and now has a personal security detail assigned to him.
  • Fauci, during a live interview with The Post, said states hit hard by the coronavirus in recent weeks needed to halt or walk back their reopenings as they grapple with surges of infections.
  • Some of the new guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on reopening schools was written by White House officials, rather than health experts, people familiar with the process said.

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Apple Warns

Apple Warns Against Closing MacBooks With a Cover Over the Camera – MacRumors


Apple this month published a support document that warns customers against closing their Mac notebooks with a cover over the camera as it can lead to display damage.

Image via Reddit

Apple says that the clearance between the display and the keyboard is designed to very tight tolerances, which can be problematic. Covering the camera can also cause issues with automatic brightness and True Tone.

If you close your Mac notebook with a camera cover installed, you might damage your display because the clearance between the display and keyboard is designed to very tight tolerances. Covering the built-in camera might also interfere with the ambient light sensor and prevent features like automatic brightness and True Tone from working. As an alternative to a camera cover, use the camera indicator light to determine if your camera is active, and decide which apps can use your camera in System Preferences.

The warnings from Apple likely stem from complaints from MacBook Pro owners who have seen their displays crack after covering the camera, and there are multiple reports and warnings on sites that include MacRumors and Reddit. The issue appears to be especially bad with the new 16-inch ‌MacBook Pro‌ models that have thinner bezels.

Image via the MacRumors Forums

MacRumors forum member Dashwin, for example, put a webcam cover on his 16-inch ‌MacBook Pro‌ in April and the result was a crack in the display under where the camera is located.

The latest MBP 16 inch with the thin tiny bezels and display comes at a cost of breakage with the tiniest of forces with a webcam cover in place. The internal display no longer works and I’ve had to connect it to an external display. I’ve had one of the exact same webcam covers on my 2011 MBP with no issues whatsoever for many years.

Damage from applying a webcam cover to the camera is considered accidental and can be repaired under AppleCare+, but it’s quite possible it’s an issue that Apple won’t fix for customers that don’t have ‌AppleCare‌+, and it’s an expensive fix.

Apple says that customers concerned about illicit camera access should watch for the green light that comes on when the camera is activated. The camera is engineered so that it can’t be accessed without the indicator light turning on.

MacBook owners can also control which apps have access to the built-in camera as users must grant permission for camera use on any operating system after macOS Mojave. For those who do need to cover the camera, Apple recommends a camera cover that’s not thicker than the average piece of printer paper (0.1mm) and that does not leave adhesive residue.

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China Warns

China warns US after Congress passes sanctions bill on Hong Kong –

China has promised to take “all necessary countermeasures” if the United States pressed ahead with legislation penalising banks doing business with Chinese officials who implement Beijing’s draconian new national security law on Hong Kong.

The warning on Friday came after the US Senate unanimously approved the Hong Kong Autonomy Act, sending it to the White House for President Donald Trump’s signature.

“This US move has grossly interfered in China’s internal affairs and seriously violated international law, as well as the basic norms governing international relations,” the Foreign Affairs Committee of China’s National People’s Congress said.

“If the US side is bent on going down the wrong path, China will resolutely respond with all necessary countermeasures.”

Beijing has faced a groundswell of criticism over its decision to impose a law outlawing “acts of subversion, secession, terrorism and colluding with foreign forces” in Hong Kong. Pro-democracy protesters in the city as well as foreign governments say the law breaches the “one country, two systems” principle enshrined in the 1984 Sino-British treaty that guaranteed the autonomy of Hong Kong.

The law has triggered alarm among democracy activists and rights groups. Demosisto, a pro-democracy group led by Hong Kong activist Joshua Wong, disbanded hours after the legislation was passed, while prominent group member Nathan Law said on Friday that he had left the global financial hub.

The 26-year-old said he made the decision to leave after criticising the new law at a US congressional hearing he attended via livestream on Wednesday. “Of course, I knew my speech and appearance would put my own safety in serious jeopardy given the circumstances,” he wrote on Twitter.

“As a global-facing activist, the choice I have are stark: to stay silent from now on, or to keep engaging in private diplomacy so I can warn the world of the threat of Chinese authoritarian expansion. I made the decision when I agreed to testify before the US Congress.”

Al Jazeera’s Sarah Clarke, reporting from Hong Kong, said Law did not close his whereabouts for security reasons and is “just one among a number of political figures who’ve fled as a result of the national security law”.

“Joshua Wong and prominent Demosisto member Agnes Chow – we do not know where they are at the moment. We think they must be in the city as they face criminal charges and are not allowed to leave as a result.”

Wong and Chow face charges of taking part in an unlawful assembly in August last year, during mass protests against a now-withdrawn extradition bill with mainland China. It was those demonstrations – which lasted for months and at times descended into violence – that prompted Beijing’s move to impose the security law.


Nathan Law, centre, walks past the media outside the Court of Final Appeal in Hong Kong [Isaac Lawrence/ AFP]

Officials in Beijing and Hong Kong say the law, which bypasses Hong Kong’s legislature, is necessary to restore order and stability in the city and will only target a handful of “trouble-makers”.

Meanwhile, Hong Kong’s local government confirmed that a popular protest slogan used over the last year – “Liberate Hong Kong, revolution of our times” – was now illegal. The rallying cry appears on placards at rallies, is printed on clothes and accessories and scribbled on post-it notes on walls across the city.

“The slogan ‘Liberate Hong Kong, the revolution of our times’ nowadays connotes “Hong Kong independence”, or separating the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) from the People’s Republic of China, altering the legal status of the HKSAR, or subverting the state power,” the government said in a statement late on Thursday.

On Wednesday, the 23rd anniversary of the former British colony’s handover to Chinese rule, police arrested about 370 people during protests against the legislation, with 10 of those involving violations of the new law

The United Kingdom has announced plans to allow millions of Hong Kong citizens with British National Overseas status to relocate with their families and eventually apply for citizenship. Australia said it was considering similar action, while Taiwan has opened an office to help Hong Kong people wanting to flee the city.

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Coronavirus Warns

WHO warns coronavirus pandemic is speeding up as countries ease lockdown rules: ‘The worst is yet to come’ – CNBC

The coronavirus pandemic is accelerating around the world as many countries that reopened their economies see a resurgence in Covid-19 cases, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, director-general of the World Health Organization, said Monday.

“Although many countries have made some progress, globally, the pandemic is actually speeding up,” he said during a virtual news conference from the agency’s Geneva headquarters. “We all want this to be over. We all want to get on with our lives, but the hard reality is that this is not even close to being over.” 

The virus has infected more than 10.1 million people around the world and killed more than 502,000 people so far, according to data compiled by Johns Hopkins University. More than 60% of daily new cases came from countries in the Americas on Sunday, according to data published by the WHO.

More than 23% of the 189,077 new cases reported globally on Sunday came from the U.S., according to the WHO’s data. Brazil was the only country in the world to report more new cases on Sunday than the U.S., according to the WHO. 

“Some countries have now experienced a resurgence of cases as they start to reopen their economies and societies,” Tedros said. “Most people remain susceptible. The virus still has a lot of room to move.”

The U.S. is among the countries experiencing a resurgence of infection after reopening businesses and easing restrictions across large swaths of the country. New cases have surged in several states across the nation, setting new records almost daily, driven mostly by expanding outbreaks in the American South and West. Florida, Texas, California and Arizona are just some of the states that reported record-high counts of daily new cases last week.

As cases in the U.S. have continued to increase, the average age of patients has declined, according to state officials in Florida, Texas and elsewhere. Some state officials say that’s why Covid-19 deaths have dropped even as cases surge since the virus is more fatal in older populations. However, several health officials, including White House health advisor Dr. Anthony Fauci, have warned that deaths will increase over time, especially as younger patients infect older and more vulnerable people.

The continued strategy of testing broadly for the virus, investigating infections, identifying people who might have been exposed, isolating infected people and improving treatment for patients will save lives, Tedros said.

“The single most important intervention for breaking chains of transmission is not necessarily high-tech and can be carried out by a broad range of profession. It’s tracing and quarantine contacts,” he said. “Six months since the virus started, it could be like a broken record to say exactly the same thing, but the same thing works. Test, test, isolate, quarantine cases.”

Tedros specifically cited dexamethasone, a cheap and widely available steroid, as an example of how clinicians have learned to provide better care for Covid-19 patients and save lives. Researchers at Oxford University released results from their trial earlier this month that showed the steroid can cut the risk of death by a third for Covid-19 patients on ventilators, and by a fifth for those on supplemental oxygen.

Japan has done a particularly good job of preserving life and protecting the most vulnerable members of society, Tedros said. Japan has one of the oldest populations in the world, he said, but has maintained one of the lowest Covid-19 death rates. The virus has infected more than 18,476 people in Japan, according to Hopkins’ data, and killed at least 972 people. 

South Korea is another example of a successful response, Tedros said, adding that “South Korea has shown to the world that without even vaccines or therapeutics that it can take the number of cases down and suppress the outbreak.”

South Korea was among the first countries outside China to be hit by the virus. Government officials quickly ramped up testing and targeted it toward people who might have been exposed to known clusters of infection. Government officials used credit card transaction data and cell phone tracking information to identify who might have been exposed to the virus.

Tedros said some governments should consider replicating South Korea’s strategy for testing, contact tracing and isolating infected people. He added that governments should involve the community in any efforts to ramp up testing, tracing and isolating.

Countries need to come together to learn from one another’s experiences in combating the virus, Tedros said, emphasizing that the “lack of global solidarity” has hampered the global response.

“The worst is yet to come” as many nations and world leaders remain divided on how to combat the virus, Tedros said. “I’m sorry to say that, but with this kind of environment and condition, we fear the worst. And that’s why we have to bring our acts together and fight this dangerous virus together.” 

— CNBC’s Noah Higgins-Dunn contributed to this report.

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Fauci Warns

Fauci warns coronavirus vaccine “unlikely” to provide herd immunity if portion of population refuse it – CBS News

The race for a coronavirus vaccine

Washington — Dr. Anthony Fauci, one of the nation’s leading experts on infectious diseases, warned Sunday that it’s “unlikely” the U.S. will achieve herd immunity to the coronavirus if a portion of the population refuses to get a coronavirus vaccine.

In an interview that aired Sunday as part of the Aspen Ideas Festival, Fauci said he would “settle” for a coronavirus vaccine that is between 70% and 75% effective, “because that would bring you to that level that would be herd immunity level.”

But when asked by CNN senior medical correspondent Elizabeth Cohen whether the U.S. can get to herd immunity if 25% of the population refuses to get a coronavirus vaccine with that rate of effectiveness, Fauci said, “No, unlikely.”

“That’s one of the reasons why we have to make sure we engage the community as we’re doing now, to get community people to help us, for people to understand that we are doing everything we can to show that it’s safe and that it’s effective and that it’s for the good of them as individuals and in society to take the vaccine,” Fauci, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said.

Fauci, a member of the White House coronavirus task force, said the federal government has “a lot of work to do” in encouraging Americans to get inoculated once there is a coronavirus vaccine available to the public.

“There is a general anti-science, anti-authority, anti-vaccine feeling among some people in this country, an alarmingly large percentage of people relatively speaking,” he said.

Fauci said it’s unlikely any vaccine will be 100% protective against the coronavirus, and he noted the best vaccine available, which protects against measles, is 97% effective with two doses.

Several companies are currently working on developing a coronavirus vaccine, and the Trump administration launched Operation Warp Speed earlier this year to speed up development and distribution.

In May, the Department of Health and Human Services said it is partnering with drug maker AstraZeneca for at least 300 million doses of a coronavirus vaccine developed by the University of Oxford and is throwing $1.2 billion behind that effort.

Earlier this month, Fauci told the Journal of the American Medical Association there are four or five trials underway for vaccine candidates, and he expects the U.S. will have millions of doses of a vaccine by year’s end.

He reiterated Sunday that several companies say that by the beginning of 2021 and into next year, there will be hundreds of millions of doses available.

“If that’s true and we’ll take them on their word, then you and I and others could have a vaccine that we might be able to take in December or January or February,” Fauci said.

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Gottlieb Warns

Gottlieb warns of “exponential growth” in coronavirus cases in states easing restrictions – Face the Nation

Gottlieb warns of “exponential growth” in coronavirus cases in states easing restrictions – Face the Nation
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Francis Warns

Pope Francis warns society against reverting to individualism after the pandemic – CNN

Rome (CNN)Pope Francis has warned the world against returning to the “illusion of individualism” after the coronavirus pandemic ends.

Francis made a statement from the Vatican on Sunday, praising healthcare workers in Italy’s Lombardy region who stood by their patients during the pandemic’s “troubled months.”
Lombardy was Italy’s worst-affected region at the height of the pandemic.
Francis later warned people to “be careful,” and not to allow individualism to again become “the guiding principle of society.”
Francis used the health care workers as an example to make his point, saying their professionalism was “one of the pillars of [Italy].” The Pope described the medical workers as “angels.”
Francis also thanked priests for showing “courage and love to the people.”
In April, he said the pandemic could be one of “nature’s responses” to humans ignoring the current ecological crisis.
The pandemic radically changed the way the Vatican operates, forcing the Pope to celebrating Palm Sunday mass in an empty church. After months of lockdown, worshippers returned to St. Peter’s Square in Vatican City at the end of May.

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Envoy Warns

Arab Envoy Warns Israelis That Annexation Threatens Warming Ties – The New York Times

In a watershed op-ed article, an influential Arab diplomat wrote, in Hebrew, that normalization with Israel would not survive a unilateral land grab at the Palestinians’ expense.

Credit…Ariel Schalit/Associated Press

David M. HalbfingerBen Hubbard

JERUSALEM — In a watershed article in a leading Israeli newspaper, a top diplomat from the United Arab Emirates warned the Israeli public on Friday that unilateral annexation of West Bank territory would endanger Israel’s warming ties with Arab countries.

Writing in Friday’s Yediot Ahronot, Yousef al-Otaiba, the Emirates’ ambassador to the United States, appealed directly to Israelis in Hebrew to deter Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu from following through on his promise to annex occupied territory as early as next month.

“It’s Either Annexation or Normalization,” the headline over his op-ed declared.

The article rebutted an argument by Mr. Netanyahu that annexing West Bank land that the Palestinians have counted on for a state would not imperil Israel’s chances of forging deeper relations with countries like the Emirates and Saudi Arabia.

Mr. Netanyahu, echoed by a host of right-wing allies, maintains that Arab countries have too much to gain from Israel — in security, technology and commerce, among other realms — to continue sticking up for the Palestinians.

But Mr. al-Otaiba, a close adviser to Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed, the crown prince of Abu Dhabi, said that this simply was not true.

“Annexation will definitely, and immediately, reverse all of the Israeli aspirations for improved security, economic and cultural ties with the Arab world and the United Arab Emirates,” Mr. al-Otaiba wrote in what was thought to be the first such article by an Emirati official in an Israeli newspaper.


Credit…Pool photo by Andrew Caballero-Reynolds

Mr. Netanyahu has vowed to push through annexation after July 1, in connection with the Trump administration’s plan for resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. But while Mr. Netanyahu and some of his allies in the Trump administration are pressing for speed, eager to act before the November presidential election in the United States, others in Washington are pumping the brakes, in part out of concern about resistance in the Arab world.

The debate over annexation comes amid a broader warming toward Israel among a number of Arab states. In recent years, Gulf countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates have drifted away from the Arabs’ staunch historical support for the Palestinian cause, in part because they see Israel as a potential trade partner and ally in their regional rivalry with Iran.

That has led them to blunt their criticisms of some Israeli actions, but Arab officials have called annexation a bridge too far. Top officials from Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Egypt have also condemned the annexation plan, if not on the pages of Israeli newspapers.

King Abdullah II of Jordan warned that annexation “would lead to a massive conflict” with his country. The Saudi foreign minister, Prince Faisal bin Farhan, said this week that annexation would be “a dangerous escalation that threatens the chances of resuming the peace process to achieve security and stability in the region.”

The increasing Arab opposition comes as Mr. Netanyahu faces domestic opposition to the plan, not just from the Israeli left, which has argued that annexation will lead to deeper international isolation and will undermine Israeli democracy, but also from Israeli settler leaders who had been among annexation’s strongest proponents. They fear that the plan will allow the creation of a Palestinian state and effectively end the expansion of Israeli settlements in much of the West Bank.

The Palestinians are treating any unilateral annexation as an abrogation of Israel’s agreements under the Oslo Accords signed in the 1990s. They have renounced their commitments under the Oslo agreements and ended their security cooperation with Israel.

It is unclear whether the opposition will have any effect on Mr. Netanyahu’s calculations. He did not immediately respond to Mr. al-Otaiba’s article.

Nor has he publicly said how expansive an annexation he would pursue. Options include some combination of annexing the strategic Jordan Valley, the eastern edge of the West Bank abutting Jordan; the suburban-style settlement “blocs” adjoining Israel proper; or all Jewish settlements including outposts deep in the heart of what could become a Palestinian state under President Trump’s peace plan.


Credit…Mohamad Torokman/Reuters

Mr. al-Otaiba rejected any annexation, no matter its scope. “By virtue of its being a unilateral and calculated course of action,” he wrote, “a declaration to annex constitutes an illegal takeover of Palestinian land.”

Shimrit Meir, an Israeli analyst of the Arab world, called Mr. al-Otaiba’s article “the most effective attempt so far to influence Israeli public opinion” on the subject of annexation.

“When someone comes to you and says, ‘Listen, we are already having great relations, even though they’re not official, and we can have closer relations, but we strongly advise you not to do X,’ and he communicates from a position of openness and cooperation, people will listen,” Ms. Meir said.

The pre-emptive Arab condemnations of the annexation plan stood in contrast to how Arab governments have reacted to other recent moves by Israel and the United States seen as benefiting the Jewish state at the expense of Palestinians and Arabs. Beyond issuing pro forma statements, Arab leaders took no action in response to Mr. Trump’s decision to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, to move the U.S. Embassy there from Tel Aviv, and to recognize Israeli sovereignty over the Golan Heights, land Israel captured from Syria in 1967.


Credit…Doug Mills/The New York Times

But Arab leaders could face more pressure from their own populations to respond to any annexation of West Bank territory.

Mr. al-Otaiba tried a different approach. He said annexation would “toughen Arab views on Israel” precisely when years of quiet diplomatic efforts had opened up opportunities to enhance cultural exchanges and foster mutual understanding.

He said his country had worked to encourage citizens in both countries to “think about the positive side of more open and normalized relations,” noting the Emirates’ invitation to Israel to take part in Expo 2020, a global exhibition in Dubai that was postponed until next year because of the coronavirus; its allowing Israel to establish a diplomatic presence in Abu Dhabi under the auspices of the International Renewable Energy Agency; and the opening in Dubai of a kosher catering service to feed its expanding Jewish community.

More broadly, Mr. al-Otaiba wrote, the Emirates and Israel share overlapping interests on terrorism and “aggression” — an allusion to Iran — as well as in commerce, finance, on climate change, water and technology. And as a regional hub, he said, the Emirates offered a potential “gateway” for Israel to the Middle East.

“These are the carrots, the incentives, the positive sides for Israel,” he wrote. He added that “we would like to believe that Israel is an opportunity, not an enemy,” but a unilateral annexation would be an “unmistakable signal” that Israel sees things differently.


Credit…Kamran Jebreili/Associated Press

In a video interview with The National, an English-language newspaper in Abu Dhabi, Mr. al-Otaiba put things more bluntly.

“All the progress that you see, and exchanges and openings, could be undermined by one simple step,” he said.

On the Palestinian side, reactions to Mr. al-Otaiba’s article were mixed at best. While some officials privately acknowledged needing all the help they could get to block annexation, Mr. al-Otaiba’s choice of an Israeli newspaper to convey his message drew angry responses.

Ghassan Khatib, a former spokesman for the Palestinian Authority, accused the U.A.E. of trying to exploit every opening to forge ties with Israel, and pointed to the arrival at Ben-Gurion Airport this week of an Etihad Airlines jet loaded with medical supplies intended for the Palestinians.

“Their goal is normalization,” Mr. Khatib said. “But they’re worried about negative Arab reactions, so they use the humanitarian needs of the Palestinians, and annexation, as an excuse. But at the end of the day, it harms the Arab and Palestinian positions. And it’s unnecessary.”

David M. Halbfinger reported from Jerusalem, and Ben Hubbard from Beirut, Lebanon.

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Cisco Warns

Cisco warns: These Nexus switches have been hit by a serious security flaw – ZDNet

Cisco has warned customers with Nexus switches running its NX-OS software to install updates to address a serious flaw that allows a remote attacker to bypass network access controls and route malicious internet traffic to internal networks. 

This bug, tracked as CVE-2020-10136, can be used to trigger a denial of service on affected Nexus switches or, more worryingly, route traffic from an attacker’s machine to a target’s internal network after bypassing input Access Control Lists (ACLs) for filtering incoming internet traffic. 

Several of Cisco’s widely used Nexus switches harbor a flaw that causes the device to “unexpectedly decapsulate and process IP in IP packets that are destined to a locally configured IP address, even when no tunnel configuration is present”. 

The IETF RFC 2003 specification for the IP-in-IP tunneling protocol allows for IP packets to be wrapped or encapsulated inside other IP packets, with the traffic remaining unencrypted at all times. 

Vijay Sarvepalli of the US CERT Coordination Center (CERT/CC) explains that the protocol unwraps the inner IP packet and forwards it through IP routing tables, but a device becomes vulnerable if it accepts these packets from anywhere without restrictions. 

“An IP-in-IP device is considered to be vulnerable if it accepts IP-in-IP packets from any source to any destination without explicit configuration between the specified source and destination IP addresses,” writes Sarvepalli. 

And that’s the problem affecting multiple Cisco Nexus NX-OS devices that support IP-in-IP packet encapsulation and decapsulation: they aren’t meant to decapsulate and process any IP in IP traffic to a device’s tunnel interface unless it’s been manually configured with ACL inbound tunnel controls.

“A successful exploit could cause the affected device to unexpectedly decapsulate the IP in IP packet and forward the inner IP packet. This may result in IP packets bypassing input access control lists (ACLs) configured on the affected device or other security boundaries defined elsewhere in the network,” Cisco notes

“Any input ACL configured on an inbound interface of the affected device is evaluated against the IP fields on the carrier IP packet prior to decapsulation; it would not be evaluated on the passenger IP packet,” Cisco further explains. 

“This may result in the passenger IP packet bypassing the intended ACL filtering. This may also allow the passenger IP packet to bypass other security boundaries that might be defined in the network path to the affected device in the presence of network filtering techniques that only inspect the outer IP header and not the inner IP packet.”

Beyond this, an attacker who repeatedly exploits the bug can cause the device’s network stack to crash, resulting in a denial of service on the affected switch. 

Cisco has given the bug a severity score of 8.6 out of a possible 10. 

CERT/CC says the bug could result in a reflective distributed denial-of-service attack, information leakage and network control bypass. 

For those who can’t immediately install updates, CERT/CC’s Sarvepalli says affected customers can prevent IP-in-IP packets by filtering IP protocol 4 packets at the upstream router or another device. Sarvepalli stresses that this filtering is for IP protocol header value of 4, as opposed to IPv4.

Cisco also suggests this measure, but first advises customers to use “infrastructure access control lists (iACLs) to allow only strictly required management and control plane traffic that is destined to the affected device”.

Yannay Livneh, the security researcher who reported the bug to Cisco, has published proof-of-concept exploit code on GitHub for admins to use to test whether they have vulnerable Nexus devices on the network. The code lets admins verify whether the device supports IP-in-IP encapsulation from arbitrary sources to arbitrary destinations. 

However, Cisco notes that it has not observed malicious activity exploiting this flaw. 

Affected Nexus switches include:

  • Nexus 1000 Virtual Edge for VMware vSphere
  • Nexus 1000V Switch for Microsoft Hyper-V
  • Nexus 1000V Switch for VMware vSphere
  • Nexus 3000 Series Switches
  • Nexus 5500 Platform Switches
  • Nexus 5600 Platform Switches
  • Nexus 6000 Series Switches
  • Nexus 7000 Series Switches
  • Nexus 9000 Series Switches in standalone NX-OS mode
  • UCS 6200 Series Fabric Interconnects
  • UCS 6300 Series Fabric Interconnects

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